The engraving laboratory is available for etchings, printing tests, editions, presentations and artistic meetings.

What is the calcographic engraving

The engraving
The engraving is one of the oldest artistic expressions of man.
Calcography means "to write on copper" and allows to transfer and multiply on paper an image and signs that make a concept visible, mediated by the excavations made on a metal plate.
However, in Europe, it only applied in recent times as its history is closely linked to the history of paper.
The art press originated in China around 105 AD. and later in Persia, while in Europe it appeared in the fifteenth century through Spain by the Arabs.
The oldest print, which combines text with images, is a Chinese woodcut known as the "Diamond Sutra", dates back to 868 AD. and is preserved at the British Museum in London.
The engraving technique descends directly from that kind of goldsmith engraving used by the artisans in the first half of the fifteenth century in Italy and, it seems, with a decade of advance in Germany and Flanders.
This type of engraving, or carving on precious metals, took the name of niello from the black enamel paste with which the furrows were covered to emphasize the drawings. The goldsmith masters, to verify the completeness of the work and to have a model, found the way to imprint, first on clay, then on fabric and finally on paper, those precious silver and gold plates before closing the excavations.
Some jewelery in Italy are anonymous, others by Perugino da Cesena and Antonio Pollaiolo.

The "original" art print
What we call a press, in truth, groups a number of different objects, each with the same paper element in common. Very often an "original print" is confused with a poster or a reproduction made with photographic means.
An art print is an original, not a reproduction, since it is the imprint left by a matrix (slab of zinc, copper, brass, iron or wood) on which the artist has created an unpublished image, made specifically and only to be imprinted on special paper.
An original print has a very limited circulation as the printing process causes a strong wear and deformation of the sheet itself.

Engraving techniques
There are two types of engraving called: cable engraving and relief engraving.
In the cable incisions only the zones and the marks engraved on the matrix are printed, which, inked with pads and cleaned on the surface, transfers the ink held in the grooves onto the paper, strongly compressed between the two rollers of the press.
The methods are direct or indirect.
The first is performed by the engraver directly on the plate through certain tools such as the burin, the tip, the crescent that define the technique: Bulino, Puntasecca, Black or Mezzotinto.
In the indirect method the incision is obtained by the intervention of an acid that affects the plate where the wax, or covering resin, is removed on the trace of the design created by the artist through the steel points or other instruments, uncovering the metal.
The most widespread indirect techniques are the Etching, the Aquatint, the Soft Paint, the Pictorial Way.
In the relief engravings only the zones and the marks left in relief on the matrix are in the print, which, inked with roller exclusively on the surface, will transfer them to the paper with pressure by hand or with presses with vertical pressure.
Of this type is engraving on wood (woodcut), on linoleum, on plastic, etc.


- Short history of the mosaic

- Direct mosaic and indirect mosaic

- Materials and tools

- The supports and glues: preparation

- The oxides

- The cutting of the tesserae and their positioning, the contours, the backgrounds, the heights

- Preparation of drawing and color matching

- Realization of a mosaic of frame

- Realization of a mosaic with geometric drawings

- Realization of a mosaic with free design

- Applications possible: placemats or coasters, frames / mirrors, cans lids, squares etc.

30 hours are expected



- Primary, secondary, complementary colors

- Dry paper, wet paper - dry colors, wet colors - color mixing
- Tones: from dark to light - from light to dark
- Preparation of a color reminder
- Signs: flat and pointed brushes
- Spray, sponge. Alcohol, salt, candle
- Copy of one or more watercolors to know practically the different ways of realization: the landscape - still life - the figure
- Realization of a work with the monochrome line
- Implementation of a work with the line and subsequent interventions brush
- A watercolor and a china from a composition from the truth
- A monochrome china
- A color work from a landscape in black and white
- Project for the realization of an informal watercolor or ink: feeling - sensation


20 hours are expected


- Notes of the history of engraving: introduction to direct and indirect techniques

- Knowledge of the tools and materials that will be used

- Cleaning and painting of a copper plate to make an etching
- Preparation of the drawing, speculate if necessary
- The tips and the carry over of the design on the plate

- Etching engraving, clamping times and printing tests
- Preparation of a copper plate for etching using the ancient method;
 realization and printing
- Introduction to aquatint technique
- Preparation and realization of a plate, coverings and acidation times

- Inking and printing of the plate to the aquatint; subsequent modifications

- Possibility of using multiple matrices for the realization of a multi-colored work

- Learning of other printing methods: veiled, by hand, à la poupee, with several dies, with seat
- The direct engraving technique: the drypoint

- Implementation of a job and press
- Notes on the burin and the mezzotinto

24 hours are expected

- Notes on traditional techniques: etching, aquatint, drypoint
- Introduction to other alternative techniques
- Cleaning and preparation of a plate
- Preparation of a soft varnish job: application of the varnish, addition of the drawing and clamp times
- Print of the work in soft varnish and possible combinations with other techniques
- Pictorial way and sugar way

- Preparation of the plate and possible applications of these techniques
- Implementation of the work
- Salt mode to support other techniques
- Print of the works: veiled, by hand, à la poupee, with more matrices, with bases, with roller
- Possibility to realize a work with the direct engraving technique of linoleography.

24 hours are expected

- Study of space: the masses and their relationships

- Depth study: the central and angular perspective

- The volume: shading, discovery of the lights and shadows

- Copy from life of objects, still lifes through the use of pencils, charcoals, pastels, fusers, chalk

- Draw a landscape with the use of charcoal and dashed ink

- Analogical design aimed at a project for informal work

- The face: proportions, shadings

20 hours are expected

- The composition: the masses and their relationships

- Trends and rhythms

- Dynamism and staticity of a painting

- Modular painting

- Lights and shadows

- The central and angular perspective

- Implementation of a drawing

- Introduction to color: primary, secondary, complementary colors

- Psychology of color: warm and cold colors

- Preparation of a palette and imprinting of a canvas, a hardboard, a cardboard

- Copying of a Master's oil work

- Use of the material and the veiling in the realization of a still life

- Creation of a landscape

- From a black and white landscape to a landscape in color to achieve the autonomy of color

- Use of color aimed at the expression of a state of mind to manifest and interpret.

20 hours are expected


Duration of the internship 4 hours (a single meeting)

Discover the method to give free rein to the creativity that is in you, to know the world around you with your intellect and emotions.

The meetings will be held with timetables and dates to be defined at the LA PUNTA Laboratory.
For information and contacts: 329 8897433

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